The book entitled, "Improving Productivity of Drylands by Sustainable Resource Utilization and Management" deals with a variety of aspects linked with utilization and management of resources used in dryland agriculture. The content of the book covers the topics on the natural resources management, biodiversity conservation, crop production and management, livestock management, energy, technology transfer and socio-economic issues. Subjects such as climate resilient agriculture, soil and water conservation measures, soil fertility appraisal, recycling of organic wastes, management strategies for livestock production, intercropping in agri-horti system, agro-morphological evaluation of crops, developing genotype for vegetable cultivation, crop diversification, farming systems, improved forage production, variability and heritability of grasses, weed management practices, economics of arable crop production, and energy conservation strategies through greenhouse have been incorporated under different chapters contributed by subject specialists. This book is an attempt to present collectively the scattered available information on several recently developed technologies and strategies for dryland management. Furthermore, the book contains 30 chapters that discuss both theoretical and practical knowledge for sustainable management of the drylands by improving productivity. Moreover, the book will be useful for professionals, researchers, scholars, and students involved in scientific activities of agricultural research in drylands.